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Intramuscular injection. How to do it correctly?

by bartosz zuchowski on June 11, 2020

Injection, is commonly known under the slogan of injection and is most often associated with giving it to the buttock and fear of childhood. Injection, however, can be done to other places on the body and does not necessarily cause us anxiety. It is worth knowing how this procedure works step by step.

intramuscular injection, how to do it correctly

Intramuscular injection - what is that?

Intramuscular injection is most often performed on the buttock. The proper technique of intramuscular injection avoids some complications. This procedure can be performed intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously or intradermally.

The way the injection is given depends primarily on the type of medicine being administered. Intramuscular injection is an alternative to administering the drug orally to bypass hepatic circulation and accelerate absorption, and thus the effect of the drug on the patient's body. Intramuscular injection fluids should have a pH of 7.0, be isoosmotic or slightly hyperosmotic to increase the penetration of the drug into surrounding tissues. Intramuscular fluids are absorbed within 10-15 minutes.

The most important is the injection technique, because, like any other procedure, it carries a risk of various complications. The vast majority of us associate intramuscular injections with buttock injections. Of course, this is not the only possible place of intramuscular drug administration, but it is the place most often chosen by medical staff because of the significant amount of muscle tissue.

Intramuscular injection - how to prepare?

Before proceeding with the injection, a brief interview with the patient should be carried out to make sure that he is not allergic to the drug or any other contraindications.

Then check the condition of the ampoule, pay special attention to the expiration date of the drug. Before administering the drug, absolutely follow all aseptic rules, wash, disinfect your hands, put on disposable gloves and disinfect the puncture site.

Intramuscular injection - in the buttock

For intramuscular injection, it is best to use the large gluteus muscle, which, due to its size and blood supply, allows optimal distribution and absorption of the administered drug. Intramuscularly, no more than 5 ml should be administered. For intramuscular injection, it is best to put the patient in a supine position with his legs bent at the knee joint.

Intramuscular injection - designation of place
Divide the buttock into four quadrants, intramuscular injection into the upper, outer quadrant. We put the tip of the index finger on the anterior superior iliac spine, spread the fingers of the hand, moving the middle finger as far as possible without tearing off the index finger. The withers of the hand should rest on the greater trochanter of the femur, and the puncture site will then be 1/3 of the lower triangle formed by the index and middle fingers.

Intramuscular injection - technique

Stick the needle in a smooth motion perpendicular to the buttock, immersing the entire length of the needle in the muscle. We stabilize the needle by holding the tip. We then perform an aspiration test to make sure the needle did not hit the blood vessel. Very slow administration of the drug minimizes the patient's discomfort and pain.

Intramuscular injection - for children

In addition, children may be given an ointment or patch impregnated with a local anesthetic. To take special care of patient comfort, familiarize yourself with the stages of the procedure and ensure that thanks to cooperation with medical staff and compliance with instructions, the injection will run smoothly and painlessly.